All material which uses in interior design project will be published here.
Sources: -Blockboard is made up of a core of softwood strips. These strips may be up to about 25mm wide. The strips are placed edge to edge and sandwiched between veneers of hardwood. The sandwich is then glued under high pressure.
Sources: -Blockboard is not suitable for outdoor use because the glues used are interior glues. When using blockboard to make such things as doors or tables, it is important to ensure that the core runs lengthways in order to achieve maximum strength. Blockboard may be used to make shelves, doors, paneling and partitions.
Sizes: -Blockboard is sold in sheets of 2440 x 1220mm and are normally 30mm thick.
Screws and nails may be used to attach blockboard and laminboard but you have to ensure that you make contact with the strips of softwood and not the gaps between the softwood strips. The edges of both blockboard and laminboard are unattractive and cannot be cleaned up well. Place softwood strips, veneers or fill and paint the edges. Blockboard and laminboard may be bought with a variety of applied finishes such as wood veneers and plastic laminate surfaces. If both sides are treated in the same way blockboard and laminboard have a good resistance to warping.
Plywood is probably the most widely available manufactured board material. It is made by bonding together a number of thin veneers of softwood or hardwood – or a combination of each. There is always an odd number of veneers and the direction of the grain runs alternately to give the material strength; the more veneers used, the stronger the plywood. Both the type of glue and veneers determine the suitability of a sheet for a particular application. The finish quality of plywood varies enormously, some have attractive grains while others can have a large number of knots.
Exterior grade plywood (WBP – Weather and Boil Proof) is specially made using a water-resistant adhesive to withstand a certain amount of moisture and can be used for outdoor constructions – sheds etc. and is sometimes used as a cladding material, particularly for insert panels under windows. WBP does require additional protection (paint or varnish) to protect the outer veneer.
Internal plywood is of a similar quality as Exterior grade but it does not use water resistant adhesive. It can be used for wall panelling, flooring and furniture.
Shuttering Ply is used in the construction industry for making shuttering boxes for containing concrete while it goes off. Although water resistance to a degree, the sides of this material are not finished with a decorative veneer and is generally not suitable for use where a quality finish is required.
Marine Plywood is made with waterproof adhesive so that it will stand immersion in water, the veneers themselves will not last forever under water so the material should still be finished with paint or varnish.
Plywood is normally available in 2440 x 1220 sheets (or subdivisions) and in thicknesses from 3 to 35 mm.
Working with plywood
If the sheets are to be used in a centrally heated room, store them in similar conditions before use so that the moisture content of the sheets will stabilise before installation – this will avoid shrinkage later.
To avoid damage to the finishing face, cut into the panel from that face – for hand sawing have the face upwards, for power sawing have the face downwards. To reduce the damage, score through the outer veneer on both sides of the sheet using a sharp knife before starting to saw.
Thin sheets (up to 3mm) can be cut using a sharp knife.
From 3 to 6mm use a tenon saw.
From 6 to 12mm thick, use a fine tooth panel saw.
For thicker sheets use a coarse tooth panel saw.
Power saws can be used with thicker material but are more likely to damage the outer skin where the saw cuts away from the material.
Plywood may be fixed in place with adhesive and screws or nails.
Generally only small screws grip well in thick plywood itself but even then they will not stand up to repeated changes in force. When fitting hinges to any thickness, use bolts with large washers and nut to ‘squeeze’ the sheet. It is not practical to screw or nail into the edge of plywood.
Where a corner joint is required, fit a softwood batten in the corner so than both sheets of ply can be fixed to it.
For thin material, always fix plywood to a pre-made frame, use glue and panel pins (on about a 200mm pitch), use a punch to knock the head of the pins below the surface. The frame should support all edges of each plywood sheet and at about 400mm centres (for 6mm ply), 600mm centres (for 9mm) or 900mm centres for thicker material.
Knocks to the edge of ply can cause damage to all the veneers which is hard to rectify, so fit a thin strip of softwood along the finished edge or put a rebate in the frame so that the edge of the plywood can be recessed. This will also improve the appearance as the edge of plywood is not very attractive.
When gluing plywood, roughen the surface with coarse abrasive paper and brush clean before applying the glue. Spread the glue evenly and apply pressure.
Plywood which is supplied with a decorative veneer can be varnished or painted but to get a really smooth surface will need good preparation as most plywoods are not as smooth as planed timber.
Sheets are also available with pre-printed faces such as mock panelling.
Mosaic Tile Flooring
200 year old mosaic in Florence Mosaic Tile Flooring is perhaps the most well known type of flooring used by homeowners today. This is because you can make your own patters, mix and match the tiles, and install them yourself. Homeowners like that they are able to customize the floor to their specific tastes using mosaic tiles.
Mosaic tile flooring can be laid down at random or as a pattern (such as a picture). Mosaic tiles can also be used in countertops, backsplashes and on small tabletops (such as a cocktail table).
Mosaic tile flooring is one of the friendliest of DIY tasks – and it can be virtually done for free using old throw-away tiles!
Interesting and Very Unique
Mosaic tiles usually come in 2×2 inch squares; you can buy them separately or already mounted on a mesh backing. Mosaic tile flooring come either glazed or unglazed, and are made out of either ceramic or porcelain. You can even use old tiles you find lying around, smash them into small pieces and create a unique pattern on, for instance, a table top.
Both ceramic and porcelain are durable materials. However, as with all tiles, you do have to take care during installation of the mesh backed variety so that the tiles don’t get cracked. If mosaic tile flooring is laid properly, it will last quite a long time.
Mosaic flooring is hard and easy to clean, which is why it is most often used in kitchens, bathrooms and entryways. It is also very water and bacteria resistant, and although it doesn’t necessarily need sealing it will better protect the grouting if you do seal it. Most commercial bathrooms are done in mosaic tile, due to its versatility. In addition, mosaic tiles are very affordable. That means you don’t have to break the bank to tile your entire kitchen or bathroom!
Mosaic tiles, while not quite as hard as marble or other similar flooring, can still be hard and cold underfoot. Many people use area rugs to take the edge off, but you may be hesitant to do this, especially if you have a pattern that you made yourself and are keen to show off!
Mosaic flooring is a do-it-yourself project! It is fairly straightforward to install. If you are artistic, you will enjoy installing your own flooring even more! There is no limit to the amount of mixing and matching of colors and patterns that you can do. However, make sure that you create your own patterns with a light hand and step back every few minutes to gauge the look of your floor. Too many patterns or overuse of color can be overkill.
If you are unsure of how to install the floor, any home hardware store will be happy to give you instructions. Below are some tips on installing mosaic flooring:
1. Make sure the subfloor is clean and dry (ideally, it will be concrete or plywood)
2. Use adhesive specially made for ceramic or porcelain
3. Be careful when using glazed tiles; they should be used primarily for walls (backsplashes) because they tend to be slippery when wet
4. Take care during the installation; mosaic tile is not as durable as other flooring and the tiles may break
Mosaic tile is very easy to maintain. However, the tiles may trap more dirt than other types of flooring. For this reason, you will want to vacuum the floor first to make sure that any trapped dirt or debris is removed. Then use a damp mop with mild household detergent to clean. You flooring dealer may also suggest a special floor cleaner for ceramic or porcelain. Any stains should be removed using a brush with synthetic, non-abrasive brushes. Otherwise, you will permanently scratch the tiles.
Advantages/Disadvantages of Mosaic Flooring
* Relatively durable material
* Easy to customize yourself
* Water and bacteria resistant
* Great for a do-it-yourself project
* Low maintenance
* Glazed tiles can be slippery if wet
* Cold and hard underfoot
* Tiles may damage/crack
Drywall (Gypsum Board)
Drywall is a common building material typically made of a layer of gypsum plaster pressed between two thick sheets of paper, then kiln dried. Drywall is used globally for the finish construction of interior walls and ceilings.
Drywall is also commonly known as gypsum board, wallboard, plasterboard (USA,UK, Ireland, Australia), Gibraltar board or gib (New Zealand – GIB being a trademark of Winstone Wallboards), rock lath, Sheetrock (a trademark of United States Gypsum Company), gyproc (Canada, Australia, UK), pladur (Spain – after the Pladur brand), rigips (Germany and Central Europe – after the Rigips brand), alçıpan in Turkey, or simply board.
Specifications (USA and Canada)
Drywall is typically available in 4 ft (1219 mm) wide sheets of various lengths. With the rising popularity of 9 ft (2.7 m) high ceilings in new home construction, 4.5 ft (1371 mm) wide panels have become commonly available as well. Newly formed sheets are cut from a belt, the result of a continuous manufacturing process. In some commercial applications, sheets up to 16 ft (4.9 m) are used. Larger sheets make for faster installation, since they reduce the number of joints that must be finished. Often, a sizable quantity of any custom length may be ordered, from factories, to exactly fit ceiling-to-floor on a large project.
The most commonly used drywall is one-half-inch thick but can range from one quarter (6.35 mm) to one inch (25.4 mm). For soundproofing or fire resistance, two layers of drywall are sometimes laid at right angles to each other. In North America, five-eighths-inch-thick drywall with a one-hour fire-resistance rating is often used where fire resistance is desired.
Drywall provides a thermal resistance R-value of 0.32 for three-eighths-inch board, 0.45 for half inch, 0.56 for five-eighths inch and 0.83 for one-inch board. In addition to increased R-value, thicker drywall has a higher sound transmission class.
 Specifications (UK)
In the UK, plasterboard is typically manufactured in metric sizes, with the common sizes being corrolaries of old imperial sizes.
Most plasterboard is made in 1200 mm wide sheets, though 900 mm wide sheets are also made. 1200 mm wide plasterboard is most commonly made in 2400 mm lengths, though 2700 mm and 3000 mm length sheets are also commonly available.
The most commonly used thicknesses of plasterboard available are 12.5 mm (modern equivalent of half an inch), typically used for walls, and 9.5 mm (modern equivalent of three-eights of an inch), typically used for ceilings. 15 mm thick board is commonly available, and other thicknesses are also produced.
Plasterboard is commonly made with one of two different edge treatments: Tapered Edge, where the sides of the board are tapered at the front to allow for jointing materials to be finished flush with the main board face, and Straight Edge, where there is no different thickness at the side of the board.
Installing Gypsum Board
“Artichoke” wallpaper,designed by John Henry Dearle for Morris & Co. Printed design pre-1900
Wallpaper is a kind of material used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. They are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Wallpapers can come either plain (so that it can be painted), or with patterned graphics.
Wallpaper printing techniques include surface printing, gravure printing, silk screen-printing, and rotary printing. Mathematically speaking, there are seventeen basic patterns, described as wallpaper groups, that can be used to tile an infinite plane. All manufactured wallpaper patterns are based on these groups. A single pattern can be issued in several different colorways.
History of Wallpaper
above:Mary Cassatt’s painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers.
Wallpaper, using the printmaking technique of woodcut, gained popularity in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. The elite of society were accustomed to hanging large tapestries on the walls of their homes, a tradition from the Middle Ages. These tapestries added colour to the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls and the room, thus retaining heat in the room. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so only the very rich could afford them. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms.
Early wallpaper featured scenes similar to those depicted on tapestries, and large sheets of the paper were sometimes hung loose on the walls, in the style of tapestries, and sometimes pasted as today. Prints were very often pasted to walls, instead of being framed and hung, and the largest sizes of prints, which came in several sheets, were probably mainly intended to be pasted to walls. Some important artists made such pieces, notably Albrecht Dürer, who worked on both large picture prints and also ornament prints intended for wall-hanging. The largest picture print was The Triumphal Arch commissioned by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and completed in 1515. This measured a colossal 3.57 by 2.95 metres, made up of 192 sheets, and was printed in a first edition of 700 copies, intended to be hung in palaces and, in particular, town halls, after hand-colouring.
Very few samples of the earliest repeating pattern wallpapers survive, but there are a large number of old master prints, often in engraving of repeating or repeatable decorative patterns. These are called ornament prints and were intended as models for wallpaper makers, among other uses.
England and France were leaders in European wallpaper manufacturing. Among the earliest known samples is one found on a wall comes from England and is printed on the back of a London proclamation of 1509. It became very popular in England following Henry VIII’s excommunication from the Catholic Church – English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII’s split with the Catholic Church had resulted in a fall in trade with Europe. Without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper.
During The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, the manufacture of wallpaper, seen as a frivolous item by the Puritan government, was halted. Following the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again – Cromwell’s regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic items which had been banned under the Puritan state. By the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling on the middle-class British market. However this trade was seriously disrupted in 1755 by the Seven Years War and later the Napoleonic Wars, and by a heavy level of duty on imports to France.
In 1748 the English ambassador to Paris decorated his salon with blue flock wallpaper, which then became very fashionable there. In the 1760s the French manufacturer Jean-Baptiste Réveillon hired designers working in silk and tapestry to produce some of the most subtle and luxurious wallpaper ever made. His sky blue wallpaper with fleurs-de-lys was used in 1783 on the first balloons by the Montgolfier brothers. The landscape painter Jean-Baptiste Pillement discovered in 1763 a method to use fast colours. Towards the end of the century the fashion for scenic wallpaper revived in both England and France, leading to some enormous panoramas, like the 1804 20 strip wide Panorama, designed by the artist Jean-Gabriel Charvetfor the french Manufacture Dufour et Cie showing the Voyages of Captain Cook. One of this famous so called Papier paints wall paper is still in situ in Ham House, Peabody Massachusetts. Beside Dufour et Cie other French manufacturers of panoramic scenic and trompe l’œil wallpapers, Zuber et Cie and Arthur et Robert exported their product across Europe and North America. Zuber et Cie’s c. 1834 design Views of North America is installed in the Diplomatic Reception Room of the White House. Like most of eighteenth century wallpapers, this was designed to be hung above a dado.
Hand-blocking wall papers like these are manufactured by using a centuries old method in which wallpaper is hand-printed from hand-carved blocks on paper. Hand-blocked wallpaper depicted scenes include, panoramic views of antique architecture, exotic landscapes and pastoral subjects, as well as repeating patterns of stylized flowers, people and animals. The 1797 founded french company Zuber et Cie in Rixheim France is the only company in the world which still manufactures wood blocked wall paper.
During the Napoleonic Wars , trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, resulting in the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in Britain. However, the end of the war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The development of steam-powered printing presses in Britain in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price and so making it affordable to working-class people. Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very effective way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. By the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular household items across the Western world. During the late 1980s though, wallpaper began to fall out of fashion in lieu of Faux Painting which can be more easily removed by simply re-painting.